Charles Mael DC
1 Braintree Street, Allston, MA, 02134
Phone: 617-787-8700
Fax: 617-787-8106
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SELECTED OCCUPATIONAL HISTORY

Clinic Director, Chiropractor, Insurance Consultant , Mael Chiropractic, P.C., Allston, Massachusetts, 1996 - Present
Chiropractic Insurance Consultant/Independant Chiropractic Exam Doctor, A variety of Independant Medical Exam Companies, Massachusetts, 1997 - Present
Chiropractor , Chiropractic Services of Holliston, Holliston, Massachusetts, 1992 - 1996

EDUCATION AND LICENSURE

Doctor of Chiropractic, Licensed in the State of Massachusetts, License # 1707, 1992-Present
Doctorate of Chiropractic, National College of Chiropractic, Lombard, Illinois, 1992
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part I, 1991
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part II, 1991
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Part III, 1991
National Board of Chiropractic Examiners, Physiotherapy, 1991
B.S. in Human Biology, National College of Chiropractic, Lombard, Illinois, 1990
B.S. in Exercise Science, University of Massachusetts at Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts, 1988

SELECTED POST-GRADUATE EDUCATION, CERTIFICATIONS AND DIPLOMATES

Evidence Based Practice, Triage, and Documentation, Spinal Biomechanical Engineering, Triage and Documentation, Utilizing principles and algorithms of spinal biomechanical engineering to analyze chronic and trauma patients in creating diagnostic, prognostic and treatment protocols. Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Elmhurst, New York, 2014
Evidence Based Practice, Triage, and Documentation, MRI Spine Interpretation, Triage and Documentation, Interpreting MRI pathology as sequella to trauma to determine herniation, bulge, protrusion and extrusion in order to create diagnostic, prognostic and treatment protocols. Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Elmhurst, New York, 2014
Evidence Based Practice, Triage, and Documentation, Evidence Based Practice, Triage and Documentation, Understanding and applying scientific literature in trauma patients to create diagnostic, prognostic and treatment protocols. Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Elmhurst, New York, 2014
MRI History and Physics , Magnetic fields, T1 and T2 relaxations, nuclear spins, phase encoding, spin echo, T1 and T2 contrast, magnetic properties of metals and the historical perspective of the creation of NMR and MRI. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Spinal Anatomy and Protocols , Normal anatomy of axial and sagittal views utilizing T1, T2, 3D gradient and STIR sequences of imaging. Standardized and desired protocols in views and sequencing of MRI examination to create an accurate diagnosis in MRI. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Disc Pathology and Spinal Stenosis, MRI interpretation of bulged, herniated, protruded, extruded, sequestered and fragmented disc pathologies in etiology and neurological sequelae in relationship to the spinal cord and spinal nerve roots. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Spinal Pathology, MRI interpretation of bone, intradural, extradural, cord and neural sleeve lesions. Tuberculosis, drop lesions, metastasis, ependymoma, schwanoma and numerous other spinal related tumors and lesions. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Methodology of Analysis, MRI interpretation sequencing of the cervical, thoracic and lumbar spine inclusive of T1, T2, STIR and 3D gradient studies to ensure the accurate diagnosis of the region visualized. New York Chiropractic Council, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Clinical Application, The clinical application of the results of space occupying lesions. Disc and tumor pathologies and the clinical indications of manual and adjustive therapies in the patient with spinal nerve root and spinal cord insult as sequelae. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Massachusetts, 2014
Neurodiagnostics, Imaging Protocols and Pathology of the Trauma Patient, An in-depth understanding of the protocols in triaging and reporting the clinical findings of the trauma patient. Maintaining ethical relationships with the medical-legal community. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Crash Dynamics and Its Relationship to Causality, An extensive understanding of the physics involved in the transference of energy from the bullet car to the target car. This includes G's of force, newtons, gravity, energy, skid marks, crumple zones, spring factors, event data recorder and the graphing of the movement of the vehicle before, during and after the crash. Determining the clinical correlation of forces and bodily injury. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Diagnostics, Risk Factors, Clinical Presentation and Triaging the Trauma Patient, An extensive understanding of the injured with clinically coordinating the history, physical findings and when to integrate neurodiagnostics. An understanding on how to utilize emergency room records in creating an accurate diagnosis and the significance of “risk factors” in spinal injury. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
MRI, Bone Scan and X-Ray Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, MRI interpretation, physiology, history and clinical indications, bone scan interpretation, physiology and clinical indications, x-ray clinical indications for the trauma patient. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Neurodiagnostic Testing Protocols, Physiology and Indications for the Trauma Patient, Electromyography (EMG), Nerve Conduction Velocity (NCV), Somato Sensory Evoked Potential (SSEP), Visual Evoked Potential (VEP), Brain Stem Auditory Evoked Potential (BAER) and Visual-Electronystagmosgraphy (V-ENG) interpretation, protocols and clinical indications for the trauma patient. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Documentation and Reporting for the Trauma Victim, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation and diagnosis utilizing the ICD-9 and the CPT to accurately describe the injury through diagnosis. Understanding and utilizing state regulations on reimbursement issues pertaining to healthcare. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Documenting Clinically Correlated Bodily Injury to Causality, Understanding the necessity for accurate documentation, diagnosis and clinical correlation to the injury when reporting injuries in the medical-legal community. Documenting the kinesiopathology, myopathology, neuropathology, and pathophysiology in both a functional and structural paradigm. Island, NY, 2012 Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Medical-Legal-Insurance Documentation, Accurate and compliant documentation of history and clinical findings inclusive of functional losses, loss of activities of daily living, duties under duress and permanent loss of enjoyment of life. Prognosing static vs. stable care, gaps in care both in the onset and in the middle of passive care with a focus on detailed diagnosing. The integration of chiropractic academia, the court system and the insurance reimburser’s requirements for complete documentation. Academy of Chiropractic Post-Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Certification in MRI Interpretation, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Protocols Clinical Necessity, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images. Clinical indication for the utilization of MRI and pathologies of disc in both trauma and non-trauma sequellae, including bulge, herniation, protrusion, extrusion and sequestration. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar degeneration. With the co-morbities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Lumbar Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of lumbar herniations. With the co-morbities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Morphology of lumbar disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad based herniations are defined and illustrated. Central canal and cauda equina compromise interpretation with management. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Cervical Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Cervical Degeneration/Bulges, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR axial, stacking, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical degeneration. With the co-morbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Cervical Herniations, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of cervical herniations. With the comorbidities and complications of stenosis, pseudo-protrusions, cantilevered vertebrate, Schmorl's nodes and herniations. Morphology of cervical disc pathologies of central and lateral herniations, protrusions, extrusions, sequestration, focal and broad-based herniations are defined and illustrated. Spinal cord and canal compromise interpretation with management. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
MRI Interpretation of Degenerative Spine and Disc Disease with Overlapping Traumatic Insult to Both Spine and Disc, MRI slices, views, T1, T2, STIR Axial, FFE, FSE and sagittal images in the interpretation of degenerative spondylolesthesis, spinal canal stenosis, Modic type 3 changes, central herniations, extrusions, compressions, nerve root compressions, advanced spurring and thecal sac involvement from an orthopedic, emergency room, chiropractic, neurological, neurosurgical, physical medicine perspective. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Patient intake, history, and physical examination, Determining the etiology of the patient's complaints in a traumatic or non-traumatic scenario. Analyzing the patient's past history and review of systems along with the performance of a complete orthopedic, neurological and clinical examination to correlate both past, current and causality issues to formulate an accurate diagnosis, prognosis and treatment plan. There is an emphasis on triaging both the trauma and non-trauma patients. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Triaging the trauma and non-trauma patients, Correlating clinical findings and the patient history in determining the correct course of care in triaging the patient utilizing orthopedic and neurological evaluations in the clinical setting. Understanding the parameters for immediate referrals vs. following the continuum of care to determine the necessity for referrals. Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Impairment Rating AMA Guide, 6th Edition, The understanding and utilization of the protocols and parameters of the AMA Guide to the Evaluation of Permanent Impairment 6th Edition. Spine, neurological sequelae, migraine, sexual dysfunction, sleep and arousal disorders, station and gait disorders and consciousness are detailed for impairment rating. Herniated discs, radiculopathy, fracture, dislocation and functional loss are also detailed in relation to impairment ratings Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Long Island, New York, 2014
Certification in Certification in Spinal Biomechanical Engineering, ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cartesian System, The Cartesian Coordinate System from the history to the application in the human body. Explanation of the x, y and z axes in both translation and rotations (thetas) and how they are applicable to human biomechanics ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cervical Pathobiomechanics,, Spinal biomechanical engineering of the cervical and upper thoracic spine. This includes the normal and pathobiomechanical movement of both the anterior and posterior motor units and normal function and relationship of the intrinsic musculature to those motor units. Nomenclature in reporting normal and pathobiomechanical findings of the spine. ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Lumbar Pathobiomechanics, Spinal biomechanical engineering of the lumbar spine. This includes the normal and pathobiomechanical movement of both the anterior and posterior motor units and normal function and relationship of the intrinsic musculature to those motor units. Nomenclature in reporting normal and pathobiomechanical findings of the spine ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanics in Trauma, To utilize whiplash associated disorders in various vectors of impact and whiplash mechanisms in determining pathobiomechanics. To clinically correlate annular tears, disc herniations, fractures, ligament pathology and spinal segmental instability as sequellae to pathobiomechanics from trauma. The utilization of digital motion x-ray in diagnoising normal versus abnormal facet motion along with case studies to understand the clinical application ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering & Organizational Analysis, Integrating spinal biomechanics and pathobiomechanics through digitized analysis.The comparison of organized versus disorganized compensation with regional and global compensation. Correlation of the vestibular, occular and proprioceptive neurological integration in the righting reflex as evidenced in imaging. Digital and numerical algorithm in analyzing a spine ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Cervical Digital Analysis, Digitizing and analyzing the cervical spine in neutral, flexion and extension views to diagnose pathobiomechanics. This includes alteration of motion segment integrity (AMOSI) in both angular and translational movement. Ligament instability/failure/pathology are identified all using numerical values and models. Review of case studies to analyze pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm. ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Lumbar Digital Analysis, Digitalizing and analyzing the lumbar spine images to diagnose pathobiomechanics. This includes anterior and posterior vertebral body elements in rotatioal analysis with neutral, left and right lateral bending in conjunction with gate analysis. Ligament instability/failure/pathology is identified all using numerical values and models. Review of case studies for analysis of pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm along with corrective guidelines. ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Spinal Biomechanical Engineering: Full Spine Digital Analysis,, Digitalizing and analyzing the full spine images to diagnose pathobiomechanics as sequellae to trauma in relation to ligamentous failure and disc and vertebral pathology as sequellae. This includes anterior and posterior vertebral body elements in rotatioal analysis with neutral, left and right lateral bending in conjunction with gate analysis. Ligament instability/failure/pathology is identified all using numerical values and models. Review of case studies for analysis of pathobiomechanics using a computerized/numerical algorithm along with corrective guidelines. ACCME Joint Sponsorship with the State University of New York at Buffalo, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Academy of Chiropractic Post Doctoral Division, Recognized by the PACE Program of the Federation of Chiropractic Licensing Boards, Buffalo, New York, 2014
Compliance and Record Keeping, Massachusetts Chiropractic Society, Boston, Massachusetts, 2010
Dynamic Analysis, Treatment, and Rehabilitation of Movement Related Dysfunctions, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Waltham, Massachusetts, 2010
Chiropractic Approach to the Treatment and Management of Headaches, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Needham, Massachusetts, 2009
Rehabilitation for the Chiropractic Patient: A Practical Guide for the Chiropractic Profession, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Dedham, Massachusetts, 2008
Rehabilitation of the Spine: A Practical Guide for the Chiropractic Profession, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 2006
Motor Vehicle Collision Injuries: Injury Biomechanics, Diagnosis, and Management, Western States Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 2005
Chiropractic Documentation: Compliance Guidelines, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 2004
Nerve Conduction and Electrodiagnostic Evaluation , University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 2004
Massachusetts, 2003
HIPPA Compliance Solutions, University of Bridgeport Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 2002
Whiplash Advanced Topics: The Fundamental Science, Requisite and comprehensive biomechanics knowledge for forensic experts, whiplash and brain injuries, the minimal property damage = minimal injury risk myth exposed, in-depth analysis of brain, neck, and cervical spine trauma mechanisms, soft tissue injuries: a comprehensive and cutting edge analysis, all clinical syndromes and conditions resulting from whiplash (WAD/CAD), what forensic experts need to know about the various pain syndromes, risk assessment: the fundamental key to modern forensic practice. Spine Research Institute of San Diego , Waltham, Massachusetts, 2000
Management Principles in Personal Injury and Forensic Documentation, In-depth training on all aspects of management of trauma, from beginning to end; a comprehensive primer on crash reconstruction, auto crash reconstruction in low speed crashes, historical documentation in personal injury and forensic medicine applications, comprehensive physical examination of whiplash and traumatic brain injury, special laboratory methods, such as the S-100 protein, the latest radiographic examination methods and analysis techniques, CT examination of brain and soft tissue injuries, MRI examination of brain and soft tissue injuries, special diagnostic imaging modalities (SPECT, PET, fMRI, MRA, VF, etc.); how and when to use, electrodiagnostics (EMG, sEMG, SSEP, VEP, etc…); how and when to use, rendering a diagnosis/impression in the personal injury or forensic setting, soft tissue healing times and implications for successful case management, the state of the injury and implications for case management, designing a treatment plan and living with guidelines, important applications of activities of daily living; optimizing outcomes, chiropractic manipulation, deep tissue massage, and PT modalities for best outcome. Spine Research Institute of San Diego , Waltham, Massachusetts, 2000
Principles of Impairment Rating and Forensic Reporting, Critical documentation from day 1; what every personal injury and forensic expert needs to know, fundamentals of expository, scientific writing, the essential craft of narrative report preparation, incorporating outcomes assessment and disability instruments into reports, the application of AMA guidelines in personal injury and forensic practice, modern guidelines and best practices (Presley Reed, Mercy, QTF, ACOEM, Croft), critical rebuttal methods and strategies in modern forensic practice, special software applications: managing data, information, graphics; saving time. Spine Research Institute of San Diego , Waltham, Massachusetts, 2000
Medicolegal Fundamentals for Practitioners and Forensic Experts, Essentials of documentation and records keeping, medical photography; when and how to use it and incorporate it, depositions, arbitrations, and testifying in court, preparing for the classic cross-examination strategies, critical differences between chiropractic and medical approaches that literally make or break a case, using evidence effectively; models, charts, diagrams, photos, movies, and more, Daubert and Frye rules; how they affect your testimony and how they can exclude opposing experts, disabusing the MIST myth; Colossus, learned treatises and reliable authorities; other federal rules of evidence experts should know. Spine Research Institute of San Diego , Waltham, Massachusetts, 2000
Whiplash and Spinal Trauma, ICA, Boston, Massachusetts, 1998
Certification in Chiropractic Insurance Consultant, New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Chiropractic Peer Review Essentials, Fundamentals of the Peer Review Process, Peer Review Report Writing Format and Skill Development, State / Regional / National, Chiropractic and Cross Discipline Treatment Guidelines, Expert Witness Training: Arbitration / Deposition / Court Room Trial Skill Development, Insurance Industries "Red Flags" Initiating the Peer Review Process, Peer Review Case Presentations. New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Fundamentals of Physiotherapy, Physiological Effects, Indications, Contraindications and Proper Dosage of Physical Therapy Modalities, Manipulation Under Anesthesia / Vax-D Protocols and Guidelines, Ethical Considerations in the Performance of Peer Review, Overview of Nutrition and Alternative Treatment Methodologies, Adjunctive Physiotherapy Case Presentations New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Peer Review of Diagnostic Testing Procedures, Plain film radiographs, MRI, CT scan, bone scan, myelography, electrodiagnostic testing: EMG, NCV, SSEP, ancillary diagnostic testing case presentations. New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Rehabilitative Exercise Protocols, Muscle physiology, overview of the exercise energy systems, progressive resistance exercise protocols, aerobic/anaerobic exercise training concepts. New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Independent Chiropractic Examination Essentials, Introduction to the independent chiropractic examination process, history taking skill enhancement, establishing the diagnostic Impression, overview of causal relation, apportionment and permanent impairment, independent chiropractic examination report writing workshop, independent chiropractic examination case presentations. New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Physical / Orthopedic / Neurologic / Chiropractic Examination Skills, Physical Examination Techniques and Findings, Utilization of Appropriate Physical / Orthopedic / Neurologic / Chiropractic Examination Testing Procedures, Independent Chiropractic Examination Case Presentations New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Chiropractic Documentation Principles, Documentation Methodologies to Enhance Third Party Reimbursement, Medicare / C.P.T. Billing Code Analysis, Record Keeping and Report Writing Workshop, Risk Management Strategies to Prevent Malpractice Claims New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997
Chiropractic Differential Diagnosis and Treatment Methodologies, Recognition of Signs and Symptoms of Disease, Disease Characteristics and Etiologies, Formulation of Differential Diagnosis, Chiropractic and Alternative Treatment of Disease New York Chiropractic College, Boston, Massachusetts, 1997

SELECTED MEMBERSHIPS

American Association of Medical Legal Professionals, Member, 2014 - Present
Academy of Chiropractic, Member, 2014 - Present